According to the EPA, “Generally speaking, land located in Alaska would not qualify as Indian country based solely on its association with, or ownership by, an Alaska Native Village. Much of the current Native landholding in Alaska has been established through the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, which extinguished the prior reservation status of most Native lands. Because Alaska Native Village lands also do not qualify as dependent Indian communities, they are generally not Indian country.”
But the Bureau of Indian Affairs, under former Secretary of Interior Sally Jewell, moved to change the terms of ANCSA. With applications rolling in now for Indian Country, Alaska has entered a new chapter of multi-jurisdictional challenges.